viernes, 16 de noviembre de 2007

Plasmando los mitos. La reina de Saba.

La reina de Saba es un personaje a caballo entre el mito y la realidad. En torno a esta figura real (en el doble sentido de la palabra), conocida a través del Libro de los Reyes y que es para los abisinios Makeda y Belkis según el Corán, se entrecruzan una serie de historias que se pueden remontar unos tres mil años de antigüedad y en ocasiones dignas de las Mil y una noches.

La leyenda cuenta que la reina acudió a Salomón intrigada por la sabiduría por la que era famoso. Tras una protocolaria acogida digna de monarcas, tras la que el rey incluso intentó convertirla, éste empezó a sentir por ella algo más que afecto. La víspera de su partida, Salomón le ofreció como despedida un banquete caracterizado por los platos picantes. La reina, sospechando, le había echo prometer que no abusaría de ella cuando durmiera, a cambio de que ella no tocara nada del interior del palacio. Sin embargo esta cláusula, y a la sed que le dió la cena a la reina, permitió a Salomón liberarse de su promesa...
Tras este prólogo ausente en la versión bíblica, el libro de los Reyes I recogerá el nacimiento de Ibn el-Hakim (literalmente el Hijo del Sabio), quien retornaría junto a su padre convirtiéndose en su heredero David. Sin embargo, volverá a su Abisinia natal, llevándose consigo el Arca de la Alianza, lo que traerá la formación de la dinastía Etiope con el nombre de Menelik I.

P. della Francesca, Salomón y la Reina de Saba.

Esta rica historia, fuente de inspiración de grandes obras de arte apareciendo en la obra pictórica de Claudio Lorena, Veronese, Brueghel y Piero della Francesca o en las "Puertas del Paraíso" del Baptisterio de Florencia, permitirá también la creación de óperas, como es el caso de Händel, o textos como La tentación de San Antonio de Flaubert.


El conjunto de influencias no pasarán desapercibias a André Malraux, quien en 1934 se lanzará, junto a un piloto, a una aventura de exploración en busca de la capital del reino de Saba. Malraux, quien tuvo una intensa vida (que él mismo contribuyó a acercar al mito) en la que se incluye su participación en la Guerra Civil dirigiendo un escuadrón republicano, su captura por los alemanes en la Segunda Guerra Mundial y posterior huida o su entrada en el París ocupado encontrándose con Hemmingway, es recordado especialmente en el ámbito literario (La Condición Humana). Sin embargo, no hay que olvidar que también fue teórico del arte, activista político, funcionario e, incluso, arqueólogo.

Este último interés, unido a su pasión por Oriente (estuvo excavando en Indochina) y a su vena más aventurera le llevarán a acometer la preparación de una expedición aérea en busca de "la ciudad perdida de la reina de Saba", suceso que narraría como enviado del periódico L´Intransigeant. Este relato fue recientemente publicado por la editorial Península (junio de 2007).

El relato está narrado en presente, es una "retransmisión en directo", con un tempo vivo, en alerta, casi folletinesco, y en la que frecuentemente hace aparición la poesía. Se trata de una aventura geográfica y arqueológica, pero también es una aventura lírica en la que el hombre se empequeñece ante el destino, ante la geografía y, de alguna manera, ante la historia. Es un retorno al pasado enmarcado y pautado por un combate contra los elementos y sobre todo contra el tiempo, pues en un momento en el que las cartografías cuando existen y los instrumentos de navegación no son fiables, sólo disponen de diez horas de combustible.

Y hay momentos en los que esta aventura supera las coordenadas antes apuntadas y entra en el terreno de lo legendario, acaba fundiéndose con el mito:

"Una vez más, es un mundo fantástico, completamente inhumano, en el cual el árbol que aparece siempre retorcido y doblado hacia el suelo, toma las formas del primer dragón semítico, el dragón de Babilonia erizado de grifos y colmillos (...) Un reino prohibido donde en el fondo, sin duda, gobierna un inmenso escorpión sagrado, cuya coraza refleja alternadamente ese sol odioso y las constelaciones del cielo babilónico."

10 comentarios:

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